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Pulitzer Prize

Pulitzer Prize
Current: 2024 Pulitzer Prize
Obverse and reverse sides of the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service gold medal, designed by Daniel Chester French in 1917
Awarded forExcellence in newspaper journalism, literary achievements, musical composition
CountryUnited States
Presented byColumbia University
First awarded1917; 107 years ago (1917)
Websitepulitzer.org Edit this at Wikidata

The Pulitzer Prizes[1] (/ˈpʊlɪtsər/[2]) are two-dozen annual awards given by Columbia University in New York for achievements in the United States in "journalism, arts and letters." They were established in 1917 by the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher.[3]

Prizes in 2024 were awarded in these categories, with three finalists named for each:[4]

  • Breaking News
  • Investigative Reporting
  • Explanatory Reporting
  • Local Reporting
  • National Reporting
  • International Reporting
  • Feature Writing
  • Commentary
  • Criticism
  • Editorial Writing
  • Illustrated Reporting and Commentary
  • Breaking News Photography
  • Feature Photography
  • Audio Reporting
  • Public Service
  • Drama
  • History
  • Biography
  • Memoir or Autobiography
  • Poetry
  • General Nonfiction
  • Music
  • Fiction

Each winner receives a certificate and $15,000 in cash,[5] except in the Public Service category where a gold medal is awarded.[6][7]

History

The 1924 Pulitzer Prize for autobiography certificate issued to Mihajlo Pupin; the certificate is modeled on Columbia University's diploma.

Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Pulitzer Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships.[8] He specified "four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships."[3]

After his death on October 29, 1911, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced in May. The Chicago Tribune under the control of Colonel Robert R. McCormick felt that the Pulitzer Prize was nothing more than a 'mutual admiration society' and not to be taken seriously; the paper refused to compete for the prize during McCormick's tenure up until 1961.[9][10]

Entry and prize consideration

Columbia President Lee Bollinger presents the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction to Jeffrey Eugenides

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, but only those that have specifically been entered. Each entry must be accompanied by a $75 handling fee. Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also be entered only in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties.[11] Only United States citizens are eligible to enter the Books, Drama, and Music categories, with the exception of the History category, which has no nationality restrictions but is restricted to books that cover United States history. Entrants to the Journalism categories are not restricted by nationality, provided their submitted work appeared in a United States publication.[12]

Each year, more than 100 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 22 separate juries for the 23 award categories; one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. Most juries consist of five members, except for those for Public Service, Investigative Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Feature Writing, Commentary and Audio Reporting categories, which have seven members; however, all book juries have five members.[3] For each award category, a jury makes three nominations. The board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations, or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75 percent majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award. The board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work; however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive honoraria for the year.[3]

Difference between entrants and nominated finalists

Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant. The jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists and authors who were only submitted, but not nominated as finalists, still claim to be Pulitzer nominees in promotional material.

The Pulitzer board has cautioned entrants against claiming to be nominees. The Pulitzer Prize website's Frequently Asked Questions section describes their policy as follows: "Nominated Finalists are selected by the Nominating Juries for each category as finalists in the competition. The Pulitzer Prize Board generally selects the Pulitzer Prize Winners from the three nominated finalists in each category. The names of nominated finalists have been announced only since 1980. Work that has been submitted for Prize consideration but not chosen as either a nominated finalist or a winner is termed an entry or submission. No information on entrants is provided. Since 1980, when we began to announce nominated finalists, we have used the term 'nominee' for entrants who became finalists. We discourage someone saying he or she was 'nominated' for a Pulitzer simply because an entry was sent to us."[12]

Bill Dedman of NBC News, the recipient of the 1989 investigative reporting prize, pointed out in 2012 that financial journalist Betty Liu was described as "Pulitzer Prize–Nominated" in her Bloomberg Television advertising and the jacket of her book, while National Review writer Jonah Goldberg made similar claims of "Pulitzer nomination" to promote his books. Dedman wrote, "To call that submission a Pulitzer 'nomination' is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters That's My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars don't work that way—the studios don't pick the nominees. It's just a way of slipping 'Academy Awards' into a bio. The Pulitzers also don't work that way, but fewer people know that."[13]

Nominally, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is awarded only to news organizations, not individuals. In rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners.[14][15] Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs; infrequently, staff Prize citations also distinguish the work of prominent contributors.[16]

Recipients

Categories

Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction. Reports and photographs by United States–based newspapers, magazines and news organizations (including news websites) that "[publish] regularly"[17] are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images."[18] In December 2008, it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.[19]

Although certain winners with magazine affiliations (most notably Moneta Sleet Jr.) were allowed to enter the competition due to eligible partnerships or concurrent publication of their work in newspapers, the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board and the Pulitzer Prize Board historically resisted the admission of magazines into the competition, resulting in the formation of the National Magazine Awards at the Columbia Journalism School in 1966.

In 2015, magazines were allowed to enter for the first time in two categories (Investigative Reporting and Feature Writing). By 2016, this provision had expanded to three additional categories (International Reporting, Criticism and Editorial Cartooning).[20] That year, Kathryn Schulz (Feature Writing) and Emily Nussbaum (Criticism) of The New Yorker became the first magazine affiliates to receive the prize under the expanded eligibility criterion.[21]

In October 2016, magazine eligibility was extended to all journalism categories.[22] Hitherto confined to the local reporting of breaking news, the Breaking News Reporting category was expanded to encompass all domestic breaking news events in 2017.[23]

Definitions of Pulitzer Prize categories as presented in the December 2017 Plan of Award:[24]

  • Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper, magazine or news site through the use of its journalistic resources, including the use of stories, editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, videos, databases, multimedia or interactive presentations or other visual material. Often thought of as the grand prize, and mentioned first in listings of the journalism prizes, the Public Service award is only given to the winning news organization. Alone among the Pulitzer Prizes, it is awarded in the form of a gold medal.
  • Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local, state or national reporting of breaking news that, as quickly as possible, captures events accurately as they occur, and, as time passes, illuminates, provides context and expands upon the initial coverage.
  • Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on significant issues of local concern, demonstrating originality and community expertise, using any available journalistic tool.[18]
  • National Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • International Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Feature Writing – for distinguished feature writing giving prime consideration to quality of writing, originality and concision, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Commentary – for distinguished commentary, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Criticism – for distinguished criticism, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing and pictorial effect, published as a still drawing, animation or both.
  • Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.
  • Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.

There are seven categories in letters and drama:

  • Biography – for a distinguished biography, autobiography or memoir by an American author.
  • Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
  • Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
  • General Nonfiction – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
  • History – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book on the history of the United States.
  • Memoir or Autobiography – for a distinguished and factual memoir or autobiography by an American author.
  • Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.

In 2020, the Audio Reporting category was added. The first prize in this category was awarded to "The Out Crowd", an episode of the public radio program This American Life. In the second year, the Pulitzer was awarded for the NPR podcast No Compromise.[25]

There is one prize given for music:

There have been dozens of Special Citations and Awards: more than ten each in Arts, Journalism, and Letters, and five for Pulitzer Prize service, most recently to Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. in 1987.

In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer Travelling Fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.

Changes to categories

Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas; the award has been renamed because the common terminology changed; or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting.

An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (awarded 1918–1947), which has been changed to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and poetry, as well as novels.

Chronology of Pulitzer Prize categories

1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Current Categories
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Journalism Journalism
17 19 21 Editorial Writing 30 32 35 81 93 08 12 Editorial Writing
17 19 Reporting 28 47
17 20 25 30 Public Service Public Service
18 Newspaper History
22 23 Editorial Cartooning 36 60 65 73 20 21 22 Illustrated Reporting and Commentary
29 Correspondence 47
Telegraphic Reporting – International 42 47 48 International Reporting 77 International Reporting
Telegraphic Reporting – National 42 43 47 48 51 National Reporting National Reporting
42 Photography 67 68 Spot News Photography 99 00 Breaking News Photography Breaking News Photography
68 Feature Photography Feature Photography
48 Local Reporting 52 53 Local Reporting – Edition Time 63 64 Local General or Spot News Reporting 84 85 General News Rep. 90 91 Spot News Reporting 97 98 Breaking News Reporting 11 Breaking News Reporting
53 Local Reporting – No Edition Time 63 64 Local Investigative Specialized Reporting 84 85 Investigative Reporting Investigative Reporting
70 Commentary Commentary
70 Criticism 92 Criticism
79 Feature Writing 04 14 Feature Writing
85 Explanatory Journalism 97 98 Explanatory Reporting Explanatory Reporting
85 Specialized Reporting 90 91 Beat Reporting 06 07 Local Reporting Local Reporting
20 Audio Reporting
Letters • Drama • Music Letters • Drama • Music
17 Biography or Autobiography 62 22 23 Biography
23 Memoir or Autobiography
17 19 History 84 94 History
62 General Nonfiction General Nonfiction
17 20 Novel 41 46 47 48 Fiction 54 57 64 71 74 77 12 Fiction
22 Poetry 46 Poetry
17 19 Drama 42 44 47 51 63 64 66 68 72 74 86 97 06 Drama
43 Music 53 64 65 81 Music
Special Awards & Citations Special Awards & Citations
24 30 38 41 44 45 47 51 52 53 58 64 78 96 19 20 21 22 For journalism
18 19 57 60 61 73 77 78 84 92 06 07 For letters
44 74 76 82 85 98 99 06 07 08 10 19 For music
44 47 48 76 87 For service

Legend

   Awarded, current category
   Awarded, category renamed and is current category
   Awarded, category no longer exists
   Nominees selected but category was not awarded

Note: The Pulitzer Prize for Local Reporting was split into two categories in 1948 that still exist as Breaking News Reporting and Investigative Reporting. The Local Reporting category was revived in 2007 as a new category to replace the Beat Reporting category.

Board

Pulitzer Hall on the Columbia campus

The nineteen-member Pulitzer Prize Board[26] convenes semi-annually, traditionally in the Joseph Pulitzer World Room at Columbia University's Pulitzer Hall. It comprises major editors, columnists and media executives in addition to six members drawn from academia and the arts, including the president of Columbia University, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and the administrator of the prizes, who serves as the board's secretary. The administrator and the dean (who served on the board from its inception until 1954 and beginning again in 1976) participate in the deliberations as ex officio members, but cannot vote. Aside from the president and dean (who serve as permanent members for the duration of their respective appointments) and the administrator (who is re-elected annually), the board elects its own members for a three-year term; members may serve a maximum of three terms. Members of the board and the juries are selected with close attention "given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution and size of news organization."

Former Associated Press and Los Angeles Times editor Marjorie Miller was named administrator in April 2022.[27] She succeeded former New York Times senior editor Dana Canedy, who served in the role from 2017 to 2020. Canedy was the first woman and first person of color to hold the position.[28][29] Edward Kliment, the program's longtime deputy administrator, was appointed acting administrator in July 2020 when Canedy became senior vice president and publisher of Simon & Schuster's flagship eponymous imprint.[30] He chose not to contend for the position and returned to his previous role upon Miller's appointment.[27]

In addition to Canedy, past administrators include John Hohenberg (the youngest person to hold the position to date; 1954–1976), fellow Graduate School of Journalism professor Richard T. Baker (1976–1981), former Newsweek executive editor Robert Christopher (1981–1992), former New York Times managing editor Seymour Topping (1993–2002), former Milwaukee Journal editor Sig Gissler (2002–2014) and former Concord Monitor editor Mike Pride (the only former board member to hold the position to date; 2014–2017). Prior to the installation of Hohenberg, the program was jointly administered by members of the Journalism School's faculty (most notably longtime dean Carl W. Ackerman) and officials in Columbia's central administration under the aegis of Frank D. Fackenthal.

Following the retirement of Joseph Pulitzer Jr. (a grandson of the endower who served as permanent chair of the board for 31 years) in 1986, the chair has typically rotated to the most senior member (or members, in the case of concurrent elections) on an annual basis.[31]

Since 1975, the board has made all prize decisions; prior to this point, the board's recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University.[32] Although the administrator's office and staff are housed alongside the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia's Pulitzer Hall and several administrators have held concurrent full-time or adjunct faculty appointments at the Journalism School, the board and administration have been operationally separate from the school since 1950.[33]: 121 

Controversies

Criticism and studies

Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Conservative columnist L. Brent Bozell Jr. said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy", particularly in its prize for commentary.[63] He pointed to a 31-year period in which only five conservatives won prizes for commentary. 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary Kathleen Parker wrote, "It's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized."[64] Alexander Theroux describes the Pulitzer Prize as "an eminently silly award, [that] has often been handed out as a result of pull and political log-rolling, and that to some of the biggest frauds and fools alike."[65]

A 2012 academic study by journalism professors Yong Volz of the University of Missouri and Francis Lee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong found "that only 27% of Pulitzer winners since 1991 were females, while newsrooms are about 33% female."[66] The researchers concluded female winners were more likely to have traditional academic experience, such as attendance at Ivy League schools, metropolitan upbringing, or employment with an elite publication such as The New York Times. The findings suggest a higher level of training and connectedness are required for a female applicant to be awarded the prize, compared to male counterparts.[67]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ https://www.pulitzer.org/
  2. ^ "FAQ". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved April 15, 2019. 24. How is 'Pulitzer' pronounced? The correct pronunciation is 'PULL it sir.'
    The pronunciation /ˈpjuːlɪtsər/ PEW-lit-sər, even if considered mistaken, is quite common, and included in the major British and American dictionaries.
  3. ^ a b c d Topping, Seymour (2008). "History of The Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved September 13, 2011. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  4. ^ "Pulitzer Prize Board Announces New Book Category". Pulitzer.
  5. ^ "Pulitzer Board raises prize award to $15,000". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  6. ^ Topping, Seymour (2008). "Administration". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved January 31, 2013. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  7. ^ "The Medal". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  8. ^ Morris, James McGrath (2010). Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-06-079870-3. Retrieved September 12, 2011.
  9. ^ Reardon, Patrick T. (June 8, 1997). "A Parade of Pulitzers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 27, 2013. for more than two decades [...] the Tribune refused to compete for the awards.
  10. ^ Epstein, Joseph (August 1997). "The Colonel and the Lady" (PDF). Commentary. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013. He viewed the Pulitzer Prize as a 'mutual admiration society,' and hence not to be taken seriously.
  11. ^ "Entry Form for a Pulitzer Prize in Journalism" (PDF). The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University.
  12. ^ a b "Frequently Asked Questions". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  13. ^ Abad-Santos, Alexander (June 26, 2012). "Journalists, Please Stop Saying You Were 'Pulitzer Prize-Nominated'". What Matters Now. The Atlantic Wire – via news.yahoo.
  14. ^ "The 2000 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The Washington Post, notably for the work of Katherine Boo". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  15. ^ "The 1996 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC), for the work of Melanie Sill, Pat Stith and Joby Warrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  16. ^ "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Local Reporting: Detroit Free Press Staff, and notably Jim Schaefer and M.L. Elrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  17. ^ "2017 Journalism Submission Guidelines, Requirements and FAQs". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "Pulitzer Board Widens Range of Online Journalism in Entries". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. November 27, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  19. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes Broadened to Include Online-Only Publications Primarily Devoted to Original News Reporting". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. December 8, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  20. ^ "Expanded eligibility for three journalism categories". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. October 26, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  21. ^ "2016 Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  22. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes open all journalism categories to magazines". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. October 18, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  23. ^ "Pulitzer Board Expands Eligibility in Breaking News Prize Category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. December 4, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  24. ^ "2020 Plan of Award". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. August 2020. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  25. ^ Audio Reporting: Winners 2020–2022, The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 6, 2023.[1]
  26. ^ "Elizabeth Alexander elected to Pulitzer Prize Board". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. May 30, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  27. ^ a b "Journalist Marjorie Miller is Elected Administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes" (Press release). The Pulitzer Prizes. March 31, 2022. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  28. ^ "Journalist, Author Dana Canedy Is Elected Administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. July 12, 2017. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  29. ^ "The 2001 Pulitzer Prize Winner in National Reporting". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  30. ^ "Pulitzer Administrator Dana Canedy Steps Down To Accept Publisher Role at Simon & Schuster". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). New York: Columbia University. July 6, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
  31. ^ Topping, Seymour. "Biography of Joseph Pulitzer". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved May 16, 2017. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  32. ^ Kihss, Peter (May 6, 1975). "Pulitzer Prizes Awarded 2 Biographers and Albee". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 14, 2023.
  33. ^ a b Boylan, James (2003). Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903–2003. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50017-3. OCLC 704692556. Retrieved March 4, 2017 – via Google Books.
  34. ^ Oehlschlaeger, Fritz H. (November 1979). "Hamlin Garland and the Pulitzer Prize controversy of 1921". American Literature. 51 (3): 409–414. doi:10.2307/2925396. JSTOR 2925396.
  35. ^ a b Walls, Jeannette (2000). Dish: The Inside Story on the World of Gossip. New York: Avon Books, Inc., an Imprint of Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 29–35. ISBN 0-380-97821-0.
  36. ^ "Drew Pearson". Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, School of Information, University of Texas. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
  37. ^ Adams, Cecil (November 7, 2003). "Did John F. Kennedy really write 'Profiles in Courage?'". The Straight Dope. Retrieved December 19, 2009.
  38. ^ "Her Story, Their Words: Behind the Scenes of the Best-Sellers". June 11, 2014.
  39. ^ Farhi, Paul (June 9, 2014). "Who wrote that political memoir? No, who wrote it?". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 11, 2014.
  40. ^ Stewart, David O. Impeached: The Trial of President Andrew Johnson and the Fight for Lincoln's Legacy. Simon & Schuster, 2009, pp. 185–86, 188–89, 242, 269, 278–80, 282, 285, 292, 297–99, 309.
  41. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War by Nicholas Lemann. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. New York. ISBN 978-0-374-53069-3. pp. 205–09.
  42. ^ Simon, Scott (September 2, 2009). "At 50, a D.C. Novel With Legs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  43. ^ Simon, Phil (May 28, 2014). "Classic Politics: The Works of Allen Drury Now Back in Print". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
  44. ^ Fischer, Heinz Dietrich; Fischer, Erika J. (2007). Chronicle of the Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction. Munich: K.G. Saur. p. 21.
  45. ^ McDowell, Edwin (May 11, 1984). "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
  46. ^ Hohenberg, John. The Pulitzer Diaries: Inside America's Greatest Prize. 1997. p. 109.
  47. ^ McDowell, Edwin. "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times, May 11, 1984: C26.
  48. ^ Fein, Esther B. (March 3, 1993). "Book Notes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  49. ^ "Judge Rules "Roots" Original". Spokane Daily Chronicle. September 21, 1978. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020 – via Associated Press.
  50. ^ "Suit against Alex Haley is dismissed". The Montreal Gazette. September 22, 1978. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020 – via United Press International.
  51. ^ Complete Historical Handbook of the Pulitzer Prize System 1917–2000: Decision-Making Processes in all Award Categories Based on Unpublished Sources, by Heinz D. Fischer and Erika J. Fischer, The Pulitzer Prize Archive, Walter de Gruyer, 2003, p. 325
  52. ^ "Pulitzer Decision Angers Juror Ignoring Nominations, Panel Didn't Know History Prize", San Jose Mercury News, April 23, 1994, p. 2B
  53. ^ "Next to Normal". Music Theater International. September 16, 2015. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  54. ^ Charles McNulty (April 13, 2010). "Critic's Notebook: On this year's drama award, the Pulitzer board blew it". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010.
  55. ^ Simonson, Robert (April 16, 2010). "Playbill.com's Theatre Week In Review, April 10-April 16: The Pulitzer Paradox". Playbill. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  56. ^ Hussain, Ashiq (May 6, 2020). "3 Indian photojournalists from Jammu and Kashmir win Pulitzer Prize". Hindustan Times. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  57. ^ "Kashmiri Pulitzer Prize winners caught in political debate". Outlook. May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020 – via Indo-Asian News Service (IANS).
  58. ^ a b "Pulitzer Prize questions India's legitimacy over Kashmir". National Herald. May 5, 2020. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  59. ^ "Pulitzer Board Must Revoke Nikole Hannah-Jones' Prize by Peter Wood". www.nas.org. Retrieved December 15, 2023.
  60. ^ "We Respond to the Historians Who Critiqued The 1619 Project". The New York Times. December 20, 2019. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 15, 2023.
  61. ^ Harris, Leslie M. (March 6, 2020). "I Helped Fact-Check the 1619 Project. The Times Ignored Me". POLITICO. Retrieved December 15, 2023.
  62. ^ "Russia Slams NYT for 'Russophobia' Following Pulitzer Prize Win". The Moscow Times. May 5, 2020.
  63. ^ Brent Bozell (April 22, 2007). "Pulitzers' liberal legacy". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  64. ^ Keach Hagey (October 4, 2010). "Kathleen Parker: 'Smallish-town girl' hits cable". Politico. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  65. ^ Alexander Theroux (2017). Einstein's Beets. Fantagraphics Books. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-60699-976-9. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  66. ^ Yong Z. Volz; Francis LF Lee (August 30, 2012). "Who wins the Pulitzer Prize in international reporting? Cumulative advantage and social stratification in journalism". Journalism. 14 (5): 587–605. doi:10.1177/1464884912455905. S2CID 145197126.
  67. ^ "Female Pulitzer Prize winners require higher qualifications, study finds". Phys.org. University of Missouri. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.

General sources

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2006 Bosnia and Herzegovina filmGrbavicaGrbavica film posterDirected byJasmila ŽbanićWritten byJasmila ŽbanićBarbara AlbertProduced byTanja AćimovićStarringMirjana KaranovićLuna MijovićDistributed byDogwoof PicturesRelease dates 12 February 2006 (2006-02-12) (BIFF) 1 March 2006 (2006-03-01) (Bosnia and Herzegovina) 15 December 2006 (2006-12-15) (UK) Running time90 minutesCountriesBosnia and HerzegovinaLanguageBosnian Grbavica is a …

Bartolomeo Pacca Kardynał biskup Kraj działania Włochy Data i miejsce urodzenia 25 grudnia 1756 Benewent Data i miejsce śmierci 19 kwietnia 1844 Rzym Miejsce pochówku ?↗ Prosekretarz stanu Stolicy Apostolskiej Okres sprawowania czerwiec 1808 – maj 1814 Dziekan Kolegium Kardynalskiego Okres sprawowania 5 lipca 1830–19 kwietnia 1844 Wyznanie katolicyzm Kościół rzymskokatolicki Prezbiterat 14 sierpnia 1785 Nominacja biskupia 26 września 1785 Sakra biskupia 17 kwietnia 1786 …

جريدة يوميوري 読売新聞 يابانيةالشعارمعلومات عامةالنوع جريدة يومية (طبعتان يوميا)تصدر كل 0٫5 يوم بلد المنشأ اليابان التأسيس 1874 نوفمبر 2 (طوكيو) 1952 نوفمبر 25 (أوساكا) 1964 سبتمبر 23 (فوكاكا)القطع القطع الكبير الثمن (صباحية) 130 ين ياباني (مسائية) 50 ين ياباني شهريا (طبعتان يوميا) 3,925 ين.الت…

Internal Revolutionary OrganizationВътрешна Революционна ОрганизацияMap of the revolutionary districts in Vasil Levski's Internal Revolutionary OrganisationLeaderVasil LevskiFoundation1869Dissolved1872Merged intoBulgarian Revolutionary Central CommitteeCountry BulgariaHeadquartersLovechIdeologyBulgarian nationalismDemocratic republicanismPart ofNational awakening of BulgariaOpponents Ottoman Empire The Internal Revolutionary Organisation (IRO; Bulgarian: …

Naturschutzgebiet Neuensiener und Selliner See (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Lage des NSG in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Teilgebiet Neuensiener See Blick aus Richtung Süd-West nach Nord-Ost über den Neuensiener See Das Naturschutzgebiet Neuensiener und Selliner See ist ein aus drei Teilen bestehendes und 234 Hektar umfassendes Naturschutzgebiet in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Die Unterschutzstellung erfolgte am 12. September 1990 im Rahmen der Gründung des Biosphärenreservats Südost-Rügen. Das …

この記事には複数の問題があります。改善やノートページでの議論にご協力ください。 出典がまったく示されていないか不十分です。内容に関する文献や情報源が必要です。(2016年4月) 独自研究が含まれているおそれがあります。(2016年4月)出典検索?: どうですか歌謡曲 – ニュース · 書籍 · スカラー · CiNii · J-STAGE · NDL · dlib.jp …

محلول ملحي (طب) يعالج تجفاف  اعتبارات علاجية ASHPDrugs.com معلومات الدواء المهنية لإدارة الأغذية والدواء طرق إعطاء الدواء وريدي وموضعي وتحت الجلد معرّفات CAS 7647-14-5 ك ع ت B05B05XA03 XA03 بوب كيم CID 5234 درغ بنك DB09153 كيم سبايدر 5044 المكون الفريد 451W47IQ8X كيوتو C13563 ChEBI CHEBI:26710 ChEMBL CHEMBL1200574 بيانات كي…

Depressão Tropical Um Tempestade tropical (SSHWS/NWS) A depressão tropical Um a 28 de maio. Formação 28 Dissipação 29 de maio de 2009 Ventos mais fortes sustentado 10 min.: 75 km/h (45 mph) sustentado 1 min.: 65 km/h (40 mph) Pressão mais baixa 1006 mbar (hPa); 29.71 inHg Fatalidades Nenhum Danos Nenhum Áreas afectadas Costas da Carolina do Norte Parte da Temporada de furacões no oceano Atlântico de 2009 editar  A Depressão Tropical Um foi o primeiro ciclone tropical a se des…

Faculty of Leiden University, The Netherlands Leiden Law SchoolKamerlingh Onnes BuildingMottoLibertatis PraesidiumMotto in EnglishBastion of FreedomTypeLaw schoolEstablished1575Parent institutionLeiden UniversityDeanSuzan Stoter (interim)[1]Academic staff325[2]Students5,473[2]LocationLeiden, South Holland, Netherlands52°09′22″N 04°29′23″E / 52.15611°N 4.48972°E / 52.15611; 4.48972Websiteuniversiteitleiden.nl/en/law/ Leiden Law Scho…

2014 short story by Gillian Flynn The Grownup First stand-alone edition (US)AuthorGillian FlynnOriginal titleWhat Do You Do?CountryUnited StatesLanguageEnglishPublisherCrown (US)Weidenfeld & Nicolson (UK)Publication date2014 (in collection)3 Nov 2015 (stand-alone)Media typePrintPages64 The Grownup is a short story by Gillian Flynn, initially published as What Do You Do? in the 2014 anthology Rogues, edited by George R. R. Martin and Gardner Dozois. It won the 2015 Edgar Award for B…

Skyscraper in Japan Triton Square redirects here. For the plaza in London, England, see Regent's Place. Harumi Island Triton SquareGeneral informationStatusCompletedLocationChūō, Tokyo, JapanCoordinates35°39′27″N 139°47′02″E / 35.65751°N 139.78377°E / 35.65751; 139.78377 Harumi Island Triton Square (晴海アイランドトリトンスクエア, Harumi-airando-toriton-sukuea) is high-rise office and residential complex in the Harumi district of Chūō, Tokyo…

German internet services company This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: United Internet – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (October 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) United Internet AGTypeAktiengesellschaftTraded asFWB: UTDIMDAX ComponentISINDE0005089031 In…

American animated comedy television series created by David Feiss Cow and ChickenGenreComedySurreal humourSlapstickSlice of lifeAnimated sitcomCreated byDavid FeissDirected by David Feiss Co-directors: John McIntyre (1 episode) Monte Young (1 episode) Robert Alvarez (15 episodes) Voices ofCharlie AdlerCandi MiloDee Bradley BakerTheme music composerGuy MoonOpening themeCow and ChickenEnding themeCow and Chicken (Instrumental)ComposerGuy MoonCountry of originUnited StatesOriginal languageEnglishNo…

Main railway station of Granada GranadaMain entrance of the station in 2021General informationLocationGranada, Andalusia, SpainCoordinates37°11′01″N 3°36′31″W / 37.1837°N 3.6086°W / 37.1837; -3.6086Owned byAdifOperated byRenfeLine(s) Antequera–Granada high-speed rail line Granada–Moreda Granada–Fuente de Piedra Platforms3Other informationIATA codeYJGHistoryOpened1874ElectrifiedYesPassengers2018297,847[1] Granada railway station is the main railwa…

2019 documentary film Ask Dr. RuthDirected byRyan WhiteProduced byJessica Hargrave Christopher Leggett Rafael Marmor Ryan WhiteMusic byBlake NeelyRelease date January 25, 2019 (2019-01-25) (Sundance Film Festival) CountryUnited StatesLanguageEnglishBox office$315,145[1]Ask Dr. Ruth is a 2019 documentary film directed by Ryan White, and produced by Jessica Hargrave, Christopher Leggett, Rafael Marmor, and Ryan White under the banner of Delirio Films, Neko Productions, a…

В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с такой фамилией, см. Солодовников. Леонид Аркадьевич Солодовников Личная информация Пол мужской Страна  СССР →  Россия Специализация Самолётный спорт Клуб ДОСААФ Дата рождения 8 мая 1958(1958-05-08) Место рождения Курган, РСФСР, СССР Д…

Kunduz كندزProvinsiLokasi Provinsi Kondoz di AfganistanNegara AfganistanIbu kotaKondozLuas • Total8.040 km2 (3,100 sq mi)Populasi • Perkiraan (2002)820.000BahasaPersiaPashto Uzbek Kunduz Kondoz atau Kunduz (Persia: قندوز) juga dikenal dengan nama Kundûz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, atau Qhunduz merupakan sebuah provinsi yang terletak di Afganistan bagian utara, yang beribu kota di Kondoz. Lihat pula Afganistan Farhad Darya Internat…

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