Share to: share facebook share twitter share wa share telegram print page

Algeciras Conference

Algeciras Conference
To ratify European intervention in Morocco following the First Moroccan Crisis
El-Hadj el-Mokri, Moroccan Ambassador to Spain, signs the treaty at the Algeciras Conference 7 April, 1906.
Signed7 April 1906
LocationAlgeciras, Spain
Sealed18 June 1906
LanguagesFrench, English and Spanish

The Algeciras Conference[a] of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from 16 January to 7 April. The purpose of the conference was to find a solution to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905 between France and Germany, which arose as Germany responded to France's effort to establish a protectorate over the independent state of Morocco.[1] Germany was not trying to stop French expansion. Its goal was to enhance its own international prestige, and it failed badly.[2] The result was a much closer relationship between France and Britain that strengthened the Entente Cordiale since both London and Paris were increasingly suspicious and distrustful of Berlin.[3] An even more momentous consequence was the heightened sense of frustration and readiness for war in Germany that spread beyond the political elite to much of the press and most of the political parties except for the Liberals and Social Democrats on the left.

The Pan-German element grew in strength, denounced the government's retreat as treason and stepped up chauvinistic support for war.[4]


Scramble for Africa. Areas of Africa controlled by European colonial powers in 1913 (Belgian (yellow), British (salmon), French (blue), German (turquoise), Italian (green), Portuguese (purple), and Spanish (pink) Empires)

Britain and France's Entente Cordiale of 1904 had defined diplomatic cooperation between them and recognized British authority over Egypt and French control in Morocco (with some Spanish concessions). Germany saw that development putting an end to the rivalry between Britain and France, which would further isolate Germany in European affairs.

On 31 March 1905, Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II visited Tangier and delivered a sabre-rattling speech, calling for an international conference to ensure Morocco's independence, with war the alternative. The historian Heather Jones argues that Germany's use of warlike rhetoric was a deliberate diplomatic ploy:

Another German strategy was to stage dramatic gestures, and dangerously play up the threat of war, in the belief that this would impress upon other European powers the importance of consultation with Germany on imperial issues: the fact that France had not considered it necessary to make a bilateral agreement with Germany over Morocco rankled, especially given Germany was deeply insecure about its newly acquired Great Power status. Hence Germany opted for an increase in belligerent rhetoric and, theatrically, Kaiser Wilhelm II dramatically interrupted a Mediterranean cruise to visit Tangier, where he declared Germany's support for the Sultan's independence and integrity of his kingdom, turning Morocco overnight into an international 'crisis.' [5]

German diplomats believed they could convince US President Theodore Roosevelt to challenge French intervention in Morocco. Roosevelt, who was mediating the Russo-Japanese War and aware of the US Senate's stance to avoid involvement in European affairs, was disinclined to become involved in the Moroccan crisis. However, with the situation in June 1905 worsening to the point of war between Germany and France and possibly Britain, Roosevelt in July persuaded the French to attend a January peace conference in Algeciras.

Germany had hoped that the conference would weaken the Entente Cordiale. Wilhelm II had thought he could form an alliance with France if most of its demands were met.[1] He also thought that better relations with Russia were possible because the Revolution of 1905 and the Russo-Japanese War had put it in a weak ally-hungry position. However, Germany was somewhat excluded in the initial decisions,[1] and British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey showed Britain's support of France in the conference via meetings with French Ambassador Jules Cambon, which made the Entente Cordiale actually grow stronger. Russia likewise wholeheartedly supported France's position in order to secure French financial markets in the hope of acquiring a large loan to recuperate losses incurred by the Russo-Japanese War.[6]

Following its failed attempt to isolate Britain, Germany furthered the growing Anglo-German Naval Race by the passage of the Third Naval Law in 1906. The overall contribution towards the outbreak of the First World War can then seem to be the separation of Germany and its allies (Triple Alliance) of Britain, France and Russia, which the following year became the Triple Entente.

The next major event to thicken the tension between them would be the Bosnian Crisis.[7]

Moroccan delegation

The opening remarks of the Algeciras Conference as depicted in the cover illustration of Le Petit Parisien.

Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco was represented by Muhammad al-Muqri and Muhammad Torres.[8] Al-Muqri expressed frustration at the translation situation and commented: "We're sitting here like statues; we can't understand a thing of what is said."[9] The Moroccan delegation had no choice but to use Abdelqader Benghabrit, an Algerian translator who was present at the conference in the service of France.[8]

Another difficulty the Moroccans faced was the difficulty of contacting the sultan, who should have been informed of every detail of what transpired at the conference. The researcher Bazegh Abdessamad wrote:

"No decision could be made—whether affirmative or negative—without his instruction and ordinance. The representatives of the US and European nations could easily contact their capitals to consult their respective governments, while Fes had no telephone or telegraph, nor was it served by any rail or paved road that would allow them to inform the sultan of developments at the conference."[10]


The final Act of the conference was signed on 7 April 1906 and covered the organisation of Morocco's police and customs, regulations concerning the repression of the smuggling of armaments and concessions to the European bankers from a new State Bank of Morocco to issue banknotes backed by gold with a 40-year term. The new state bank was to act as Morocco's central bank, with a strict cap on the spending of the Sherifian Empire and administrators appointed by the national banks, which guaranteed the loans, from the German Empire, United Kingdom, France and Spain. Spanish coinage continued to circulate.[11] The right of Europeans to own land was established, and taxes were to be levied towards public works.[12]

The Sultan of Morocco retained control of a police force in the six port cities, which was to be composed entirely of Moroccan Muslims and budgeted at an average salary of a mere 1000 pesetas a year but was to be instructed by French and Spanish officers. They would oversee the paymaster (the amin), regulate discipline and have the ability to be recalled and replaced by their governments. The Inspector-General in charge would be Swiss and reside in Tangiers.

At the last moment, the Moroccan delegates found that they were unable to sign the final Act, but a decree of Sultan Abdelaziz of Morocco on 18 June finally ratified it.


Cartoon by Hector Moloch [fr], January 1906: the Duke of Almodóvar del Río, Révoil, Visconti-Venosta, von Radowitz, and Nicolson (misspelt) at the Algeciras Conference

See also


  1. ^ French: Conférence d'Algésiras; Spanish: Conferencia de Algeciras; Arabic: مؤتمر الجزيرة الخضراء


  1. ^ a b c "The Algeciras Conference of 1906". History Learning Site. May 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  2. ^ Antony Best; Jussi Hanhimäki; Kirsten E. Schulze; Joseph A. Maiolo (2008). International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 978-0203889862. OCLC 233840812. At Algeciras, close Anglo-French collaboration forced Berlin to accept a diplomatic defeat.
  3. ^ Jones, 2006)
  4. ^ Immanuel Geiss, German Foreign Policy 1871–1914 (1976) 133–136.
  5. ^ Heather Jones, "Algeciras Revisited: European Crisis and Conference Diplomacy, 16 January–7 April 1906." (EUI WorkingPaper MWP 2009/1, 2009), p 5 online
  6. ^ Lieven, Dominic (2015). Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia. London: Allen Lane. pp. 185–190. ISBN 9780141399744.
  7. ^ Margaret MacMillan, The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914(2012) pp 378–398.
  8. ^ a b ""شروط الخزيرات" .. حقيقة أشهر مؤتمر قرر في مصير المغرب". Hespress (in Arabic). 14 July 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  9. ^ ""شروط الخزيرات" .. حقيقة أشهر مؤتمر قرر في مصير المغرب". Hespress (in Arabic). 14 July 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020. إننا جالسون هنا شبه تماثيل، لا نستطيع أن نفهم شيئا مما يقال
  10. ^ ""شروط الخزيرات" .. حقيقة أشهر مؤتمر قرر في مصير المغرب". Hespress (in Arabic). 14 July 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020. الباحث بازغ عبد الصمد يقول "..ومن المشاكل الكبرى أيضا التي كانت تقض مضجع الوفد المغربي في المؤتمر صعوبة الاتصال بالسلطان الذي كان لابد من إطلاعه على كل كبيرة وصغيرة مما يجري في المؤتمر، ولا يمكن اتخاذ أي قرار بنفي أو إثبات، قبول أو اعتراض، إلا طبق تعليماته وما يأذن به. فممثلو الدول الأوربية والأمريكية كانوا يستطيعون الاتصال بعواصم بلدانهم لاستشارة حكوماتهم بسهولة، أما فاس عاصمة المملكة فلم يكن بها تلفون ولا تلغراف ولا تفضي إليها سكك حديدية ولا طرق سيارة معبدة، تمكن من إطلاع السلطان في قصره على مداولات المؤتمر."
  11. ^ ""شروط الخزيرات" .. حقيقة أشهر مؤتمر قرر في مصير المغرب". Hespress (in Arabic). 14 July 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Algeciras Conference". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  13. ^ Fassi-Fihri, Mohammed (2008). Mon grand-père, ambassadeur à Paris: 1909–1910 (in French). Marsam Editions. ISBN 978-9954211380.
  14. ^ Thomas, Martin (2008). Empires of Intelligence: Security Services and Colonial Disorder After 1914. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520251175.

Further reading

  • Anderson, Eugene N. The First Moroccan Crisis, 1904–1906 (U of Chicago Press, 1930) online
  • Eastman, Anthony F. "The Algeciras Conference, 1906." The Southern Quarterly 1 (January 1969):185–205 online
  • Esthus, Raymond A, Theodore Roosevelt and the International Rivalries (1970) pp 88–111.
  • Fay, Sidney Bradshaw. The Origins of the World War (Vol. 1. Macmillan, 1930) pp 168–191. online
  • Geiss, Immanuel. German Foreign Policy 1871–1914 (1976) 133–136.
  • Jones, Heather. "Algeciras Revisited: European Crisis and Conference Diplomacy, 16 January–7 April 1906." (EUI WorkingPaper MWP 2009/1, 2009). online
  • MacMillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914(2012) pp 378–398
  • Rogers, Marjorie Lucille, "The conference of Algeciras 1906." (Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper #1884, U of Louisville thesis, 1933). online 98 pages

Read other articles:

Untuk suku Lewi, lihat Suku Lewi. LewiLewi, dari Twelve sons of Jacob, Belanda c. 1590Dikenal atasSalah satu anak Yakub dan nenek moyang dari suku Lewi Lewi (Ibrani: לוי; Ibrani Standar: Levy atau Levi Ibrani Tiberias: Lēwî ; menyatukan; bahasa Inggris: Levi atau Levy) adalah putra ketiga Yakub dan Lea, serta leluhur suku Lewi (orang-orang Lewi). Lewi dan Simeon membunuh penduduk kota Sikhem sebagai balas dendam karena adik mereka Dina diperkosa oleh seorang penduduknya, sekaligus …

В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с такой фамилией, см. Тайц. Макс Аркадьевич Тайц Фото 1944 года Дата рождения 21 января 1904(1904-01-21) Место рождения Варшава, Российская империя Дата смерти 23 июля 1980(1980-07-23) (76 лет) Место смерти Жуковский, СССР Страна  Российская империя СС…

Monopterus Monopterus albus Klasifikasi ilmiah Kerajaan: Animalia Filum: Chordata Kelas: Actinopterygii Ordo: Synbranchiformes Famili: Synbranchidae Subfamili: Synbranchinae Genus: MonopterusIlliger, 1811 Spesies Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) Monopterus bicolor H. D. Nguyễn & V. H. Nguyễn, 2005 Monopterus dienbienensis V. H. Nguyễn & H. D. Nguyễn, 2005 Monopterus javanensis Lacépède, 1800 Sinonim[1] Amphipnous Müller, 1840 Apterigia Basilewsky, 1855 Cryptophthalmus Fr…

ШальбакSchalbach   Країна  Франція Регіон Гранд-Ест  Департамент Мозель  Округ Саррбур-Шато-Сален Кантон Фенетранж Код INSEE 57635 Поштові індекси 57370 Координати 48°49′24″ пн. ш. 7°10′16″ сх. д.H G O Висота 262 - 332 м.н.р.м. Площа 12,58 км² Населення 368 (01-2020[1]) Густота 24,24 о

نادي سرقسطة لكرة السلة شعار نادي سرقسطة لكرة السلةشعار نادي سرقسطة لكرة السلة معلومات النادي البلد إسبانيا  تأسس عام 1981  الموقع سرقسطة، منطقة أرغون ألوان الفريق أحمر، أبيض     الموقع الرسمي الموقع الرسمي البطولات البطولات 2 أطقم الفريق     الطقم الأساسي    …

Синиця Артем Миколайович Народився 3 листопада 1975(1975-11-03) (48 років)Чернігів, Українська РСР, СРСРКраїна  УкраїнаДіяльність політикAlma mater ДТЕУ (1998)Посада народний депутат України[1] і народний депутат України[2]Партія Партія регіонів У Вікіпедії є статті про ін

Народний герой Югославіїсерб. Народни херој Југославије Країна ЮгославіяТип найвища нагородаСтатус не вручається Нагородження Засновано: 1941Перше: 1942Нагороджені: Черговість Старша нагорода немає  Народний герой Югославії у Вікісховищі Народний герой Югославії (серб

Church of St. Toros, Jerusalem Church of Saint Toros (Armenian: Սուրբ Աստվածածին եկեղեցի) is an Armenian Orthodox church in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem. History The Church of St. Toros is located next to St. James' Cathedral. Some 4,000 ancient manuscripts are kept at the church[1] (cf. St. Toros Manuscript Library). This collection of Armenian illustrated manuscripts is the second largest in the world, after one in Armenia. When former Armenian President Levo…

2004 film by Brad Bird This article is about the film. For other uses, see The Incredibles (disambiguation). The IncrediblesTheatrical release posterDirected byBrad BirdWritten byBrad BirdProduced byJohn WalkerStarring Craig T. Nelson Holly Hunter Sarah Vowell Spencer Fox Jason Lee Samuel L. Jackson Elizabeth Peña Cinematography Andrew Jimenez Patrick Lin Janet Lucroy Edited byStephen SchafferMusic byMichael GiacchinoProductioncompanies Walt Disney Pictures[1] Pixar Animation Studios …

هذه المقالة يتيمة إذ تصل إليها مقالات أخرى قليلة جدًا. فضلًا، ساعد بإضافة وصلة إليها في مقالات متعلقة بها. (نوفمبر 2019) كارل روزينكرانتس (بالألمانية: Karl Rosenkranz)‏    معلومات شخصية الميلاد 23 أبريل 1805[1][2][3][4][5]  مغدبورغ  الوفاة 14 يونيو 1879 (74 سنة) [6]&#…

يفتقر محتوى هذه المقالة إلى الاستشهاد بمصادر. فضلاً، ساهم في تطوير هذه المقالة من خلال إضافة مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (يوليو 2019) هذه المقالة تحتاج للمزيد من الوصلات للمقالات الأخرى للمساعدة في ترابط مقالات الموسوعة. فضلًا ساعد في تحسين …

La Côte d'Ivoire est un pays subsaharien d'Afrique de l'Ouest. C'est une démocratie présidentielle représentative où les droits sont protégés par la constitution, le droit international et la common law. En tant que membre de la Commission africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples (en), elle est partie de la Charte africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples[1] et signataire des principaux accords internationaux relatifs aux droits de l'homme. En 2011, la deuxième guerre civ…

American Internet comedy company For the TV series, see The CollegeHumor Show. For other uses of College Humor, see College Humor (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: CollegeHumor – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template me…

2010 Canadian filmFoodlandTheatrical release posterDirected byAdam SmolukWritten byAdam SmolukProduced byJuliette HagopianStarringJames Clayton Ross McMillan Kim PoirierCinematographyKeith EidseEdited byRon WismanMusic byMitch DorgeProductioncompanyJulijette Inc.Release date December 9, 2010 (2010-12-09) Running time80 minutesCountryCanadaLanguageEnglish Foodland is a 2010 Canadian comedy film written and directed by Adam Smoluk. Synopsis The story follows Trevor, a naive grocery …

1977 filmLady DraculaDirected byFranz Josef GottliebWritten byBrad Harris Redis RedaStarringEvelyne Kraft Brad Harris Theo LingenCinematographyFritz Baader Ernst W. KalinkeEdited byGisela HallerMusic byHorst JankowskiProductioncompanyIFV ProduktionRelease date 16 March 1977 (1977-03-16) Running time79 minutesCountryWest GermanyLanguageGerman Lady Dracula is a 1977 West German comedy horror film, directed by Franz Josef Gottlieb and starring Evelyne Kraft, Brad Harris, and Theo Lin…

Artikel ini tidak memiliki referensi atau sumber tepercaya sehingga isinya tidak bisa dipastikan. Tolong bantu perbaiki artikel ini dengan menambahkan referensi yang layak. Tulisan tanpa sumber dapat dipertanyakan dan dihapus sewaktu-waktu.Cari sumber: Minas Jaya, Minas, Siak – berita · surat kabar · buku · cendekiawan · JSTOR Minas JayaKelurahanNegara IndonesiaProvinsiRiauKabupatenSiakKecamatanMinasKodepos28885Kode Kemendagri14.08.03.1001 Kode BPS14…

Transformers character Not to be confused with Metatron, Megagon, or Magnetron.For other uses, see Megatron (disambiguation). Fictional character MegatronTransformers characterGeneration 1 Megatron artVoiced byEnglish: Frank Welker (television series, Transformers: Devastation)[1]Garry Chalk (Beast Wars – Golden Disk recording)David Kaye (Unicron Trilogy)Jason Marnocha (Transformers: Combiner Wars)Marc Thompson (Transformers: Cyberverse)Rory McCann (Transformers: EarthSpark) Japanese: …

American/international men's magazine This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may have been created or edited in return for undisclosed payments, a violation of Wikipedia's terms of use. It may require cleanup to comply with Wikipedia's content policies, particularly neutral point of view. (December 2020) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please h…

For other uses, see Bugaboo and Pulga (disambiguation). 1983 video gameBugaboo (The Flea)Developer(s)Paco & PacoPublisher(s)QuicksilvaDesigner(s)Paco SuarezPaco PortaloPlatform(s)ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, MSX, Amstrad CPCRelease1983Genre(s)PlatformMode(s)Single player Bugaboo (The Flea), later published in Spain as La Pulga, is a video game written by the Spanish programming duo Paco Portalo and Paco Suarez[1][2] for the ZX Spectrum and published by Quicksilva in 1983. It wa…

Earl GreyEponimCharles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey (en) Jenisflavored tea (en) AsalInggris [sunting di Wikidata]lbs Earl Grey adalah teh hitam yang dicampur dengan minyak bergamot (Sejenis jeruk), dan pertama populer di Inggris. Walaupun demikian, kini tak hanya teh hitam saja yang bisa disebut teh Earl Grey, teh hijau dan teh lain pun dapat disebut Earl Grey asal diberi minyak bergamot. Pranala luar (Inggris) Sebuah situs yang didedikasikan untuk membandingkan teh Earl Grey Art…

Kembali kehalaman sebelumnya